The International Journal for Religious Freedom (IJRF) https://ijrf.org/index.php/home <p>The International Journal for Religious Freedom (IJRF) is published twice a year and aims to provide a platform for scholarly discourse on religious freedom in general and the persecution of Christians in particular. It is an interdisciplinary, international, peer reviewed journal, serving the dissemination of new research on religious freedom and contains research articles, documentation, book reviews, academic news and other relevant items.</p> <p>The IJRF is listed on the South African Department of Higher Education and Training “Approved list of South African journals” as effective from 1 January 2012.</p> <p>Manuscripts submitted for publication are assessed by a panel of referees and the decision to publish is dependent on their reports.</p> <p>The IJRF subscribes to the National Code of Best Practice in Editorial Discretion and Peer Review for South African Scholarly Journals.</p> <p>The IJRF is available as a paid print subscription, and released later as a free online version on 1 March and 1 September respectively (www.iirf.global), as well as via SABINET and EBSCO.</p> <p><a title="Leitet Herunterladen der Datei ein" href="https://iirf.global/wp-content/uploads/IJRF//dhet_accreditation.pdf" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">Accreditation</a></p> <p><a href="https://ijrf.org/index.php/ijrf/information/authors" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">Guidelines for authors</a></p> International Institute for Religious Freedom en-US The International Journal for Religious Freedom (IJRF) 2070-5484 <p>Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (<a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CC BY 4.0</a>)</p> Religious communities as good neighbors in a post-secular global society https://ijrf.org/index.php/home/article/view/97 <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="section"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>This paper proposes four themes to inform how religious communities can be good neighbors. These are: (1) respect one another’s religions and symbols; (2) avoid religious nationalism; (3) seek to distinguish universal ethical principles from particular religious beliefs; and (4) react peacefully to conversions to and from religions.</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> Thomas Johnson Copyright (c) 2022 Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2022-03-03 2022-03-03 13 1/2 7–10 7–10 “Religion never stands above the law” https://ijrf.org/index.php/home/article/view/98 <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="section"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>Regularly, civil authorities in Europe ask religious communities to confirm that “religion never stands above the law.” Some believers would like to respond that the law never stands above the Bible (or Tanakh or Qur’an). However, the relationship between religion and law is more complicated than either of these statements would suggest. This article tries to formulate the relationship in a language that is under- standable for civil authorities, and with a content that reassures them of believers’ peaceful intentions while not betraying religious convictions.</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> Geert Lorein Copyright (c) 2022 Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2022-03-03 2022-03-03 13 1/2 11–20 11–20 Self-censorship in Latin America https://ijrf.org/index.php/home/article/view/99 <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="section"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>The trend of secular intolerance in Latin America has impacted the expression of the Christian faith, manifestations of faith-based views, and even the behavior of Chris- tians. Based on 40 interviews we conducted with Christian members and represen- tatives of the political sector, media, education and church, in Colombia and Mexico, we show that at least a subset of the Christian population self-censors in order not to be affected by legal sanctions or a hostile environment. This self-censorship is the result of a “chilling effect” whereby Christians tend to conform to dominant rules or norms for fear of being sanctioned or criticized.</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> Teresa Flores Dennis Petri Copyright (c) 2022 Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2022-03-03 2022-03-03 13 1/2 21–26 21–26 Origins of and responses to secular intolerance https://ijrf.org/index.php/home/article/view/100 <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="section"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>Secular intolerance occurs when secular governments or societies marginalize religious faith and practice. Religion is forced out of the public sphere and is limited to the private sphere. Civic space is denied to those with religious perspectives that diverge from those promoted by those who are non-religious. This paper traces the philosophical roots of secular intolerance starting with the Enlightenment. It con- cludes with suggestions on counteracting secular intolerance.</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> Dennis Petri Janet Epp Buckingham Copyright (c) 2022 Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2022-03-03 2022-03-03 13 1/2 27–35 27–35 Death by a thousand cuts https://ijrf.org/index.php/home/article/view/101 <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="section"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>In this study, we systematize the main areas of concern related to secular intoler- ance, based on interviews conducted in fall 2018 with representatives of more than 20 faith-based organizations in Western Europe. We conclude that although some Christian advocacy organizations exaggerate the intensity of secular intolerance in the West, the phenomenon is indeed widespread and getting worse. We discuss practical responses to secular intolerance in the fields of research, advocacy, reli- gious literacy training and raising awareness within the church. Some of the trends that we categorize under secular intolerance are reversible, but most seem more difficult to reverse.</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> Dennis Petri Ronald Boyd-MacMillan Copyright (c) 2022 Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2022-03-03 2022-03-03 13 1/2 37–53 37–53 The re-awakening of Waldensianism at the time of the Risorgimento https://ijrf.org/index.php/home/article/view/102 <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="section"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>Far from being just a secular project, the Italian Risorgimento had deep spiritual foundations. The project of “resurrection” of freedom of religion in modern Italy became an anti-clerical project though not necessarily anti-Christian. Radical Free Church Protestants generally supported the Republican ideals of Mazzini and Garibaldi, while Waldensians sided with the liberal Cavour. A spiritual awakening preceded the political awakening that led to the emancipation of the Waldensians, an event embodying the ideals of the Risorgimento. Indeed, Waldensians played a major role in the Risorgimento, contributing soldiers, parliamentary representatives, educators, writers, entrepreneurs, missionaries, and most of all, individuals who fought for religious freedom.</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> Ottavio Palombaro Copyright (c) 2022 Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2022-03-03 2022-03-03 13 1/2 55–56 55–56 Laïcité as control https://ijrf.org/index.php/home/article/view/103 <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="section"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>This article argues that the 2021 legal reforms on laïcité in France signify a new development in the legal concept of laïcité. The new provisions move away from&nbsp;an emphasis on laïcité as an organisational principle of the state, the separation between church and state, and neutrality. Instead, the 2021 law pre-emptively casts suspicion on religious minorities as potential threats to public order, Frenchness and the principles of the Republic, and it attaches to this suspicion an assertion of con- trol backed by the force of administrative and criminal law. This control is reminiscent of the Napoleonic motives for interfering with the Catholic Church as well as with Protestant and Jewish minorities.</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> Mariëtta van der Tol Copyright (c) 2022 Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2022-03-03 2022-03-03 13 1/2 67–80 67–80 Quebec’s Bill 21 and the secular conceit of religious neutrality https://ijrf.org/index.php/home/article/view/104 <p>Quebec’s Bill 21, An Act respecting the laicity of the State, prohibits many categories of civil servants from wearing religious symbols while on duty. Although popular in Quebec, the legislation has been denounced elsewhere as an intrusion into matters that fall outside state authority. In this article, I survey the history of Bill 21 and situate its conception of religious neutrality within the spectrum of Canadian perspectives on this issue. Specifically, I juxtapose Bill 21’s restrictive understanding of this principle with a more inclusive vision of religious neutrality that creates meaningful space for the participation of religious minorities in public life.</p> Kristopher Kinsinger Copyright (c) 2022 Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2022-03-03 2022-03-03 13 1/2 81–93 81–93 The need to overcome Catholic-centered anticlericalism https://ijrf.org/index.php/home/article/view/105 <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="section"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>Laicity and secularity refer to the role of religion in the public sphere. Since they both relate to religious phenomena, these concepts are commonly confused. However, they result from separate processes and imply different consequences. This paper explains the development of both laicity and secularity in Mexico and discusses why the former should be reformulated to attain diversity in the Mexican contemporary social system. The paper emphasizes the gap between the existing legal framework and prevailing social practices in Mexico’s ever-changing religious scenario.</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> Mariana Guadalupe Molina Fuentes Copyright (c) 2022 Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2022-03-03 2022-03-03 13 1/2 95–109 95–109 An unwanted child https://ijrf.org/index.php/home/article/view/106 <p>Turkey’s secularism and the extent of religious freedom in the country are affected by enduring Ottoman influences. These influences have not only hindered the integration of secularism into all levels of state and society but have obscured evidence of a synergy between secularism, religious freedom, and the Turkish Protestant Church (TPC). Although intertwined with Sunni Islam, secularism has provided a context&nbsp;in which well-protected religious freedom, granted in the 1961 Constitution, could catalyze the TPC’s emergence. Moreover, the TPC has helped the state and society to manifest and nurture its commitment to religious freedom, so that it has proven to be more than the arbitrary religious tolerance of Ottoman times.</p> James Bultema Copyright (c) 2022 Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2022-03-03 2022-03-03 13 1/2 111–121 111–121 The influence of secularism in free exercise jurisprudence https://ijrf.org/index.php/home/article/view/107 <p>The free exercise clauses in the First Amendment of the US Constitution and Section 116 of the Australian Constitution are almost identical textually. However, they have been interpreted very differently, with the United States providing broad protection for religious freedom and Australia very narrow protection. I suggest that secularism has influenced First Amendment jurisprudence to some extent but Section 116 jurisprudence more significantly, and that this influence may explain the difference in interpretations. Hence, more secularist approaches to the free exercise clauses appear to contribute to narrower interpretations that undermine religious freedom.</p> Alex Deagon Copyright (c) 2022 Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2022-03-03 2022-03-03 13 1/2 123–137 123–137 A response to the political argument against religious conscience https://ijrf.org/index.php/home/article/view/108 <p>In response to scholars who argue that religious conscience should not be accommodated if it is deemed “political,” this paper argues that individuals who seek accommodation are in fact adopting a personal, deeply moral stance rather than a political one. To reject the conscientiously held positions of individuals such as civil marriage commissioners is to run counter to what we have long understood liberal democracy to affirm with regard to accommodating conscientious objectors. Such a rejection excludes these persons from full participation and represents a failure to treat them as dignified citizens with equal value in society.</p> Barry Bussey Copyright (c) 2022 Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2022-03-03 2022-03-03 13 1/2 139–156 139–156 Why Europe needs a more post-liberal theory of religious liberty https://ijrf.org/index.php/home/article/view/109 <p>What is the attitude of European courts toward institutional religious autonomy? Their case law shows a mixed picture, with the right to freedom of thought, conscience, and religion sometimes weighing less heavily than other interests. One illustrative example is the recent ruling of the Court of Justice of the European Union on ritual slaughter. The decision reflects the liberal-egalitarian approach that arguably characterizes European case law. That approach can be traced to a firm belief in ongoing secularization, which can lead to intolerance of religious convictions. The future of institutional religious autonomy in Europe is therefore uncertain.</p> Hans-Martien ten Napel Copyright (c) 2022 Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2022-03-03 2022-03-03 13 1/2 157–167 157–167 Noteworthy https://ijrf.org/index.php/home/article/view/110 <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="section"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>The noteworthy items are structured in three groups: annual reports and global surveys, regional and country reports, and specific issues. Though we apply serious criteria in the selection of items noted, it is beyond our capacity to scrutinize the accuracy of every statement made. We therefore disclaim responsibility for the con- tents of the items noted. The compilation was produced by Janet Epp Buckingham.</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> IJRF Copyright (c) 2022 Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2022-03-04 2022-03-04 13 1/2 169–174 169–174 Book reviews https://ijrf.org/index.php/home/article/view/111 <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <ul> <li>Inside the Church of Almighty God: The most persecuted religious movement in China (Massimo Introvigne)</li> <li>Freedom of religion or belief: Creating the constitutional space for fundamental freedoms (Paul T. Babie, Neville G. Rochow and Brett G. Scharffs (eds.))</li> <li>Constitutions and religion (Susanna Mancini (ed.))</li> <li>Influence with respect (Carsten Hjorth Pedersen)</li> <li>Why religious freedom matters for democracy: Comparative reflections from Britain and France for a democratic “vivre ensemble” (Myriam Hunter-Henin)</li> <li>Anti-Christian violence in India (Chad M. Bauman)</li> <li>The disappearing people: The tragic fate of Christians in the Middle East (Stephen Rasche)</li> </ul> <div class="page" title="Page 5"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column">&nbsp;</div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> IJRF Copyright (c) 2022 Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2022-03-04 2022-03-04 13 1/2 175–189 175–189